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Guidelines for Contributions

The following guidelines serve as a reference for all contributions within the Artistic Research PhD Programme and can be used for abstracts, handouts, or papers. It is a recommendation based on the standards of academic publishing and serves as an example for style sheets of peer reviewed publications. We recommend these guidelines for your written reflection.

PDF ZFF Guidelines

  1. Formal Design and Layout

English: choose either American or British English throughout the document.

Quotation marks are set uniformly “on top”.

Quotation marks within citations are marked with ‘single’ quotation marks.

Long quotations (at least three lines long) are indented 1 cm from the left margin and reduced to 9 pts. A blank line is inserted before and after the quotation.

Short quotations are integrated into the body text and are within “double quotation marks”.

Omissions in citations must be marked with […]. The same applies to [A]mendments. In the case of a note, the author’s initials are mentioned [that’s me, note W.H.].

Gender-sensitive language: Gendering is assumed, the chosen form is up to the author.

Emphasis in running text: emphasis for dependent, independent, and fictitious work titles only in italics. The names of performance groups, broadcasters, and newspapers/magazines are not italicized. Specific terms are highlighted with ‘single quotation marks’ only the first time they are mentioned in the contribution.

Position of footnote number: The number is always placed after the period and comma,[1] footnote number is therefore always in last position.


  1. Media

Media such as images, illustrations, or photographs serve not only illustrative purposes but should primarily be used on an equal footing with the text and support and expand comprehension. When selecting them, pay attention to their relevance and reflexive relation to your contribution.

Image rights: It is the author’s responsibility to obtain the rights to publish images from their owners. For publications, images will not be embedded in the document but will be included as a separate file (e.g. Research Week contributions).

Caption: Each image will receive a caption consisting of “Fig. nr. X:” and a brief image description (author, title, year, and, if needed, a short descriptive note). The image description always ends with a period.

Image credits: The source of the image is listed at the end of the contribution in a list of figures.


  1. Citation Style

Harvard in-text citation: references are cited directly in the text (in parentheses). The bibliography is cited at the end.

Footnotes are for notes and comments only.

Direct quotation vs. paraphrase: In the case of direct quotations (literal takeover), the “quotation” is placed in double quotation marks. In the case of paraphrasing (taking over in one’s own formulation), quotation marks are omitted and the reference is introduced with cf.

Common abbreviations in footnotes:

ibid./cf. ibid.      = in the place indicated. Refers to the same page as the previously mentioned reference

f.                            designates the next page in addition to the one mentioned, i.e., a total of two pages

ff.                           stands for the next two subsequent pages, for a total of three pages



  1. Citation of sources

The citation is made in the running text by means of short citation (Harvard in-text system). The complete reference is given at the end of the text in a bibliography.

First name Last name: if no author is known, this is indicated by n.n.

First name Last name/First name Last name: two authors/editors are separated by a slash (without spacing); if there are three or more, only the first is mentioned and the others abbreviated as et al.

Title. Subtitle: The subtitle is separated from the title by a period. The first word after the title is capitalized.

Emphasis in the original title: Emphases are reproduced using ‘single quotation marks’.

Ed./Eds.: if there are three or more editors, only the first is listed and the others are referred to as et al.

Publisher: The publisher is indicated without “GmbH”, “Press” or similar.

Page references for articles and individual contributions: If individual articles are cited from an anthology or journal, the page count of the original article must be given in addition to the page number cited. (Ex.: p. 450-463, here: p. 455).


Examples of citations:

First citation Short citation in running text
Monograph Judith Butler, Das Unbehagen der Geschlechter, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp 211991, p. 5. Butler 1991, p. 5.


Contribution in an anthology Sybille Krämer, “Medien, Boten, Spuren. Wenig mehr als ein Literaturbericht“, in: Was ist ein Medium?, Stefan Münker/Alexander Roesler (eds.), Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp 2008, p. 65-90, here: p. 69. Krämer 2008, p. 69.


Magazine article Kat Válastur, “ME AS tiME. About the Creation of Lang 2008“, SCORES 3/2013, p. 58-63, here: p. 60. Válastur 2013, p. 60.


Homepage Zentrum Fokus Forschung, Postgraduale Forschungsprojekte, URL:, accessed on 15.01.2021. Zentrum Fokus Forschung, Postgraduale Forschungsprojekte.
Text or subpage of a homepage Wera Hippesroither, “Nach der Katastrophe: ‘The Slowest Urgency‘“, PW Magazine, 10.6. 2021, URL:, accessed on 11.6.2021. Hippesroither 2021.




[1] Example.